Concussion and Traumatic Brain Injury

Concussion is an injury affecting the brain, induced by direct or indirect biochemical forces. Risk is increased if not properly identified and managed, including potential for longer recovery times and likelihood of re-injury. Second and third injuries are likely to be more severe, can take longer to recover from, can cause permanent brain damage and increase risk of retirement from sports.

Common Symptoms

  • Rapid onset of usually short-lived neurological impairment, which resolves quickly
  • Acute clinical symptoms that usually reflect a functional disturbance rather than structural
  • A range of clinical symptoms that may or may not involve loss of consciousness
  • Routine neuroimaging (MRI, CT) typically normal

Concussion Prevalence

  • 1.6 to 3.8 million sport-related concussions per year
  • Only 47% of football players sustaining a concussion actually report injury (McCrea et al., 2004)
  • 400,000 US troops with (Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) are currently deployed.